Tag Archives: Islam

Three Major Dynasties: History Told Thread by Thread

Fragile pottery pieces, old master paintings, elaborate jewelry, ethnic clothing and ancient manuscripts spanning thousands of years and dynasties are mainstays of museums. But how often does one see antique carpets that have survived the times?

Imperial Threads: Motifs and Artisans from Turkey, Iran and India, an unique temporary exhibit at the Museum of Islamic Art in Doha, Qatar, offers a new perspective to three major dynasties. The cultural exchange between these Islamic world empires led to the creation of some of the world’s most beautiful works of art.

carpets-as-diplomatic-giftsThe artistic collection and interwoven connection of these dynasties – Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal – are highlighted through their handmade rugs, motif tiles, manuscripts and ceramics primarily from the 16th to the 18th centuries. It was commonplace for these empires to exchange artistic and material treasures – and cultures – whether as diplomatic gifts or objects of warfare.

There are 25 historic carpets on display in three sections, divided by bridges, some of which have glass floors with the carpets beneath them for up close viewing, with each section focusing on a specific dynasty. The carpets – some well preserved while others show significant wear – serve as the centerpiece of the entire exhibition.

“We wanted this exhibition to look very special and different,” Dr. Mounia Chekhab-Abudaya, exhibit curator, told Doha’s Peninsula newspaper in an interview. “Each of the three sections has glass floor features because we wanted people to see how the carpets looked like in the palaces, not on the walls as they are usually seen in museums, but on the floor. We wanted visitors to have an idea how grand the palaces would look decorated with various objects and beautiful designs.”

Focusing on the Timurid period in Iran and Central Asia (1370-1507), the Imperial Threads exhibit detailed artistic practices that were shared amongst the three succeeding and neighboring dynasties.map-of-dynasties

The Timurids conquered portions of Iran and Central Asia in the 14th century bringing with them their semi-nomadic traditions. According to exhibit storyboards, the Timurids played an important role in sharing the trade and diplomatic development of the three empires. They also are credited with introducing new artistic styles and practices.

Ottoman Dynasty in Turkey
The Ottoman world took hold at the turn of the 14th century, but the arts scene didn’t begin to flourish until Sulayman the Magnificent’s reign (1520-1566).

As the dynasty expanded geographically and economically, according to a storyboard, this expansion “set the ground for cultural and artistic development that continued until the 19th century.”

When the Ottomans occupied Northern Persia, one of those cities was Tabriz, an important weaving center that provided direct influence on artistic carpet production that included the transfer of motifs and craftsmanship from Iran to Turkey. Tabriz rugs are woven by highly skilled craftsmen using only the finest material and are widely renowned and sought after in collections of Persian rugs.carpet-exhibit

This first section of the exhibit showcases carpets and other mediums characteristic of local tribal designs that were merged with outside Iranian influences.

The different motifs prominent in carpets and other objects on display include cloudband, medallion, animal, cintamani, saz, lotus flower, lattice and flower motifs. Cintamani and saz tile motifs became characteristic of Ottoman materials trending away from geometric designs toward the use of central medallions and the introduction of the saz motif as a principal pattern. These motifs appear in the various pieces produced by artists in the three empires revealing the connection between the neighboring dynasties.

The saz style combines a twisting serrated leaf with other motifs, which can be floral or saz-motif-tilefigural. Artist Shad Quli, head of Sulayman the Magnificent studio workshop, introduced this motif and became well known for his drawings that combined a stylized leaf with dragons.

The wavy ribbon-like cloudband motif forms the shape of a horseshoe. Originally derived from Chinese art, the cloudband is found on a variety of media from the Islamic world including the illuminated Quran and ceramic bowl, both on display. The Mongols introduced this motif in the 13th century.

wavy-horseshoe-motif

Safavid Dynasty in Iran
The Safavid Empire (1501-1736) showcases works from the royal manuscripts workshop, as well as artistic motifs. During this period, books and manuscripts witnessed profound development primarily due to royal court patron support. Textiles and carpets were also produced in great numbers. They played a major role in the sharing and transfer of artistic practices as traveling artists.

illuminated-Qurans

Manuscript illustrations often featured court scenes with palace interiors depicting great detail. “With the representation of colored pavilions, carpets and other fabrics, paintings demonstrated the use of objects manufactured at the royal court workshops in their original and historical contexts,” explains a storyboard. “The meticulous work and the rich patterns and colors used by the painter reveal the attention given to these textiles, and the patterns used to illustrate them may have been adapted from contemporary carpets or other objects with shared motifs.”

Black and turquoise-glazed hexagonal tiles with floral motifs from a Tabriz carpet from the 15th to 16th century were a popular style.

hezagon-floral-tiles

Between war, diplomatic relations and inevitable political changes, “previous objects were transferred across borders whether as diplomatic gifts or war booty, and artists pursued careers from one workshop to another,” reads another storyboard.

Diplomatic Gifts
Gifts were commonly offered to celebrate a new ruler’s ascent to the throne, the circumcision of a ruler’s son, or simply to promote strong diplomatic relations. Common gifts included textiles and manuscripts – always luxury objects – between the three dynasties. This cross-cultural gift interaction explains how styles spread between different courts and influenced neighboring dynasties’ artistic production.

Animal motifs, long time depiction in Islamic and pre-Islamic art, were common on ceramics, textiles, stone work and in manuscripts. In Islamic times, these motifs had a secular context, not religious, and were ornamental architectural elements of palaces or display objects for royal settings.

animal-motif-bottles

Combat scenes in particular, depicting strong animals such as lions attacking weaker prey, were commonly portrayed serving to remind the viewer of the valor and courage their ruler held over his enemy.

Due to the development of firearms during the period of these three great empires, they are commonly referred to as the “gunpowder empires”. Highly decorated weapons manufactured in the royal workshops demonstrate the pageantry function of such objects that would have been made for ceremonial use rather than for battle.

On display are a Turkish-made shield and axe from the late 16th to early 17th century. The cane shield is constructed of iron and copper alloy that is decorated with gold floral motifs, woven silk border, and geometric motifs on a yellow background.

shield-&-axe

Mughal Dynasty in India
The third section of the exhibit highlights the Mughal Dynasty (1526-1858). It was during this period that European prints were introduced to the Mughal libraries. Based on patterns from these books, Mughal artists began creating their own patterns. During this time, Islam was gaining popularity in India and Mughal artists created a new style based on European prints and Islamic subjects.

The Mughal Empire also features the culmination of artistic styles that integrate Safavid, Ottoman and local traditions.

Millefleurs-niche-carpetOne of the important artistic styles coming out of this time period was detailed floral designs that were prominent in carpets and jewelry. On display is a silk and pashmina pile carpet that features millefleurs, distinguished by their floral motifs and vivid colors. The carpet design clearly shows a flowering vase at the base and is an early 18th century product.

Nearby are stunning examples of a 19th century enamel and gold necklace incorporating a floral motif, a 17th century jar made of gold, silver, diamonds and mother of pearl, as well as an 18th century ruby and enamel perfume sprinkler.

19th-C-Indian-necklace

17th-c-jar18th-c-perfume-sprinkler

The lattice motif was made popular in the early to mid 16th century and was not only incorporated into carpets, but also on marble decorations for palaces. The interlaced criss-crossed pattern incorporates natural flowering plants and blossoms arranged in rows against a plain background.lattice-motif-pattern

Cuerdo seca tiles were also popularized in the 17th century. These types of tiles were used both to decorate palace or tomb walls, and show the use of realistic floral designs. Originally derived directly from its use in the Safavid Dynasty, the strong colors recall the miniature paintings of the same era.

Cuerdo-seco-tile

Geometric designs were popular in the 16th and early 17th century in India. Carved sandstone of white marble and red sandstone were used for carved, pieced stone screens known as jalis. These screens were used in Indian architecture prior to the Mughal period.

jali-screen-sandstone

Coming full turn and standing the test of time, these ancient motifs continue to be evident in carpets and other objects produced today. Liken it to the cultural exchange during these three major empires, if you will, and transferring that interaction today with the exhibition’s sharing knowledge of the arts.

green-sphere

As visitors enter and leave, an eye-catching spherical LED display projects colorful patterns in succession duplicating the motifs on exhibit.

Leave a comment

Filed under Arab, culture, history, travel

Doha’s Sheikh Faisal Museum Blends Islamic Civilization with Qatari Heritage Treasures

Image

The open door of a castle wall beckons us into the Hall of Islamic Arts. I was unprepared for what was to follow during the next two and a half hours. I literally found something new around each corner leading into yet another new hall of artifacts. The Sheikh Faisal Museum is a place where the past is alive and well.

Military weaponry, fine arts (woodwork, ceramics, glass, earthenware, paintings, metals and bronze), vintage vehicles and an airplane, textiles, historic manuscripts and calligraphy, life size dhows and Bedouin camps – it’s all here, plus more.

Sheikh Faisal bin Qassim Al Thani, the museum’s private collector, is the great great-grandson of Jassim Al Thani, the founder of Qatar. In 2012, Sheikh Faisal was awarded the title “Heritage Personality of the Year” for noteworthy achievements in heritage preservation organized under the patronage of the League of Arab States. Sheikh Faisal has been collecting antiques and artifacts since the 1960s, and according to museum staff, exhibit pieces currently total more than three thousand. The five halls – soon to double in size as a new addition receives final touches – comprise collections under three major categories: Islamic Art, Qatar Heritage, and Coins and Currency along with Pre-Islamic artifacts in all the above categories.

Islamic Art Collection

The museum’s Islamic Art collection encompasses objects produced between the 7th and 19th centuries from people living in the Middle East, Far East and Africa. Arrowheads and numerous fine examples of silver-plated and inlaid steel Mughal daggers and swords are displayed along with a fine 19th Century Moroccan powder gun with ivory and silver inlay.

Entering a connecting hall, visitors are introduced to fine examples of wooden works, including numerous engraved, traditional wooden doors with Arabic inscriptions and a marvelous example of an 18th Century wooden Indian cart engraved and decorated with natural dyes.

Row upon row of paintings along with a unique two-headed bronze horse anchor an end of the hall before connecting to vintage motorbikes, bicycles and early prams and tricycles.

Qatar Heritage

Historic car buffs will be awed by this fascinating and eclectic collection of vehicles – including a 19th century steam car – vintage trucks, an airplane and the renowned Williams FW27 Grand Prix Racing Car from the 2005 F1. Rare Model T Fords, Model A roadsters, era Chevy’s, Desoto’s, Mercedes Benz and Dodge vehicles ranging from the 1910s up through the 1960s are well represented.

As an expat visitor, I found myself naturally drawn to the key displays in this hall as they portray the Bedouin way of life and offer glimpses into Qatari heritage that reflects the continuing evolution of the culture. Actual Qatari fishing boats and dhows, fishing equipment and early pearl diving apparatus are very impressive. Qatar heritage is further illustrated via two ample sized Bedouin tents and a stone well drilling down at least 10 feet complete with water barely discernable at the bottom. A large air bellow rests aside a campfire, once used to keep the huge flames burning to allow for cooking and roasting meat. Miscellaneous everyday utensils and objects, which are also important components of Bedouin Arab history, are scattered about helping to tell the story.

A separate area in this hall houses Islamic, Jewish and Christianity artifacts as well as private rooms set up illustrating 19th century kitchens, bedrooms and the appropriate fashions of the day.

Coins, Currency and Calligraphy

Sheikh Faisal’s collection includes both pre-Islamic and Islamic coins ranging from the Umayyad’s to the Ottomans. Banknotes from across the world are also displayed.

Numerous manuscripts, Qurans and centuries-old leather bound books are preserved in a climate-controlled wing of the museum across the hall from another air-conditioned section housing unique styles of jewelry, textiles and embroidered clothing.

One of the highlights for me was the reconstruction of an upper class home from Aleppo, Syria. The structure was dismantled and relocated to the museum where it was painstakingly reconfigured. The fine detail and magnificent ceiling and wall designs and their respective colors are incredible.

Moroccan Style Furniture and Accessories

Massive groupings of wooden and metal inlay wardrobes, chandeliers, chairs, fans and the like overpower the length of one of the hall walls. The pieces are massive and impressive! (photo) Under a glass display is a fascinating collection of women’s sabots (wooden shoes) dating to the Ottoman period. Many were inlaid in mother of pearl, ivory and silver while others were painted with natural dyes.

Scattered throughout the halls are hundreds of carpets and antique rugs both on the floor and hanging behind glass frames on walls, which are also part of the museum collection. Think of the stories behind the designs, workmanship and depictions of these wool and silk threaded masterpieces.

Two courtyards featuring individual wooden carts and miscellaneous wagons and wheels rounded out the exhibit. One of the courtyards had yet another deep well. The courtyards looked to be unfinished works in progress.

If you find yourself in Doha, Qatar, a visit here is a must. The Sheikh Faisal Museum leaves a lasting impression, particularly for history buffs that want to learn more about the rich Arab culture and Qatari heritage and the historic events that contributed to their evolution.

The museum is open from 9 a.m. until 6 p.m. Mondays through Thursdays and on Saturdays. It is closed on Sunday and Friday. Call +974 4486 1444 for directions and to schedule your museum visit and reserve an English-speaking tour guide if you are booking a private group tour. Admission is free. The Sheikh Faisal Museum is a member of the International Council of Museums – UNESCO.

 

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized