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China’s Terracotta Warriors

Imagine the shock a group of simple Chinese farmers quietly digging a well in a field one day experienced when they stumbled upon an upright life-size terracotta figure of a warrior.

The discovery was uncovered in March 1974, and the site was soon identified as Emperor Qin’s place of burial.

Who was Qin?
Born Ying Zheng in 259 BC, he succeeded his father as king when only 13 years old. Qin Shi Huang, founder of the Qin dynasty, ruled as China’s first emperor from 221-207 BC. More importantly, Qin was responsible for China’s unification, initiating groundbreaking reforms during his reign.

In 230 BC he began his campaign to conquer China’s remaining six kingdoms, thus unifying the country for the first time in its existence. History indicates Zheng accomplished this feat in less than 10 years, and proclaimed himself the first emperor of a unified China.

Marble-statue-of-Qin-Shi-Huang-The-First-Emperor-of-Qin-Dynasty

It was then that Zheng took the title Qin Shi Huang, which means “first emperor of Qin”. Consequently, Qin Dynasty became the first imperial dynasty of China.

One of Qin’s most important reforms was abolishing the old political system and dividing his empire into 36 districts. He instituted this to avoid political chaos.

He then appointed officials based on merit rather than following hereditary lines, as had been the custom. Military officers who distinguished themselves in battle were rewarded with important military positions.

Two other reforms under his rule were the unification of the law and standardizing the Chinese units of measurement and currency.

His most significant act, however, was to unify the Chinese written language by creating a novel, and more simplified, script that became the standard.

Nevertheless, Qin was an unpopular ruler and considered inhumane through much of China’s history. Ruling with an iron hand, he had more than 450 scholars, whose views he disagreed with, killed and ordered most existing books to be burned. Because of this, Confucian scholars portrayed him as a brutal tyrant and upon his death publicly undervalued his achievements.

Qin is credited with commissioning the original version of China’s Great Wall, designed to protect against barbarian invasions. Showing little regard for human life, it is estimated that hundreds of thousands of men died during the construction of the famous defensive wall. While little of this wall remains today, it was the precursor to the Great Wall of China.Great-Wall-of-the-Qin

Now, however, the massive mausoleum complex he had constructed for himself near the ancient city of Xi’an reflects his legacy despite the untold numbers who died during construction and the artisans he ordered killed in order to preserve the secrecy of the tomb’s location and the treasures buried within.

Perception of Death
“Treat death as life” was the ancient Chinese traditional perception of death. According to information in the Chinese exhibit that is on display at Doha, Qatar’s Museum of Islamic Art, “they considered death another form of living, believing that the afterlife one enters after death is an exact copy of the present one.” That is why personal objects used during their lifetime, such as clothes, daily necessities and status symbols, can usually be found in their tombs or mausoleums.

Terrified of death, Qin was obsessed with acquiring immortality. Later in his life he ordered his court physicians and alchemists to create a tonic or medicine that would grant him eternal life. What they came up with were mercury pills, which would supposedly make him immortal. He died on September 10, 210 BC allegedly due to mercury poisoning.

The Terracotta Army Mausoleum
In early China societies, the custom of human sacrifice was followed as part of a funeral ritual. During the Zhou Dynasty that preceded the Qin Dynasty, this philosophy changed to using clay and wooden figures rather than humans. The Qin terracotta warriors exemplify this philosophical shift.

photo-of-terracotta-soldiers-pitQin ordered work to begin on the famous mausoleum soon after he became king. Historians believe it took 700,000 men and 38 years to construct the mausoleum, which was larger than any city of the world at that time. His burial chamber was to be enclosed within the structure.

The life-size warriors in military formation – more than 6,000 of them – “guarded and protected” Qin’s tomb in the afterlife from evil spirits for more than 2,200 years after his death. In addition to this large pit the farmers discovered in 1974 were three other pits. A second pit contained cavalry and infantry unit sculptures, a third consisted of high-ranking officers and chariots, and a fourth was empty, suggesting that the burial pit was left unfinished following the emperor’s death.

One of the most remarkable aspects of this discovery is that the pits were designed with a sophisticated layout, as load-bearing walls were discovered every 10 feet between where the warriors and horses stand.

Chinese Sculpture vs. Western Sculpture
Within China’s art history circles, the Qin terracotta warriors rank extremely high in artistic value. Every detail of the figures was modeled on real persons from their height and proportion to their facial features resulting in a life-like sculptural style. What makes these terracotta figures so unique is that they all differ from one another not only in facial features and expressions, but also clothing, hairstyle and even their gestures. Every terracotta warrior was originally painted in bright colors, which is believed to have added immensely to their vividness.

4-warriors-&-horse

Western sculpture places its focus on form and muscle. “It uses light and shadow to create a sense of depth, and applies the principles of human anatomy to express the human body’s muscular and dynamic beauty,” according to art historians. Chinese sculpture, however, focuses more on portraying a subject’s temperament, which is why the sculptures show a strong realistic feel with artistic exaggeration of facial detail. Rarely does Chinese sculpture indicate a subject’s muscles or detailed body form.

The Terracotta Army and Their Weapons
The soldiers, archers, horses and chariots discovered during restoration work indicate they were created using molds and an early assembly line-type construction. It is believed that only eight molds were used to shape their heads, while distinctive clay surface features were added after they were assembled indicating a high level of craftsmanship and artistry. This explains why each soldier appears to be unique in its facial features yet most of the figures’ hands are identical.

Archaeologists found more than 40,000 bronze weapons during excavation, including battle axes, crossbows, arrowheads and spears, all of which were astonishingly well preserved given the more than 2,000 years they laid undiscovered. They credit the preservation to protective chrome plating, which reveals the sophistication of ancient Chinese metallurgy given that Germany first used this technique in 1937 and the U.S. not until 1950.

Qin’s Unexcavated Tomb
Since the tomb was discovered 40 years ago, less than one percent of it has been excavated. At first archaeologists were concerned about damaging Qin’s corpse and tomb artifacts, but that gave way to concerns about the excavation’s potential safety hazards. In 2005 a team led by Chinese archaeologist Duan Chingbo tested 4,000 samples of the burial mound earth for mercury, and all came back highly positive. Given this chemical evidence, the debate continues over whether to excavate, how to protect people working at the site, and what methods should be utilized to best protect the artifacts.

Proclaimed one of the greatest archeological discoveries in the world, the Terracotta Army Mausoleum is now unofficially hailed as the eighth Wonder of the World. Four of the unearthed terracotta structures, three warriors and a horse, are currently part of the traveling Chinese exhibit at the Museum of Islamic Art in Doha, Qatar.

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Cyprus: A Communion with Religion and History

Cyprus-CIA_WFB_Map

An open-air museum is the best way to describe this small island country and its long and storied history. Add in the strong Greek mythology and devout Greek Orthodox religion, and you have a country that is a true communion with history and religion.

Eleni, our tour guide during the week we were in Cyprus, educated us on numerous aspects of her country, including: nature/natural resources, history and geography, mythology, the tourism industry, the Greek Orthodox religion and the politically charged Cyprus Problem. She was cautious to preface some of her opinions, as just that, but I certainly learned more from her than any history book.

Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean after Sicily and Sardinia, and is located about 60 miles from Turkey and 72 miles from Syria. The country was formed from a volcano. According to history, earthquakes destroyed almost all of the towns of Cyprus during the fourth century. Its soil is mainly chalk and limestone with sparse vegetation, and the climate mostly hot and arid.

Geographically, Cyprus is divided into three portions: the Troodos Mountains, the Kyrrian Mountain and the Mesari plain, located between the two mountains. The Troodos Mountain range was formed from an earthquake and is mostly solid lava rock.

Cyprus has two natural salt lakes, both of which are dry most of the year, filling up only during the winter rainy period. During the Middle Ages, the salt was mined and exported, as Europe didn’t have salt for some reason. It is no longer mined, according to Eleni, because it is polluted.

salt-lakeThe largest salt lake, near the Larnaca airport, attracts thousands of flamingoes, wild swans and other migrating birds from Asia during the winter months, which then return to Asia in the spring.

According to the story of how the salt lake of Larnaca was formed, as told by Eleni, when Lazarus came to the Larnaca area in 32 AD, he was thirsty and hungry. He saw a vineyard of grapes ready for harvest, and asked the vineyard owner, an elderly lady, who was holding a basket full of grapes if he might have some. She refused telling him that the basket was full of salt. Lazarus became very angry and reportedly transformed the vineyard into a salt lake and the basket she was holding into a basket full of salt. People who later worked in the salt lake said they would periodically find roots of the old lady’s vineyard.

Larnaca aquaductNearby the lake are the remains of an aqueduct, built in 1745 AD that supplied water to Larnaca and was in use for approximately 200 years.

Natural Resources/Nature
Copper was discovered during the period between the Stone and Bronze ages. At first the discovery was not well known; however, during the 2500 BC period, word got out, and then the island invasions began in earnest, says Eleni. The Syrians, Egyptians and Persians all invaded Cyprus for its copper. It is believed the island has taken the name from the ‘Cypressus’, the Cyprus trees, and that the island gave the name to copper.

black-olivesAs you may suspect, olive trees are abundant on the island. According to Eleni, the oldest olive trees in the country are about 700 years old and still producing. She explained the way to recognize an old olive tree is that it has a hollow trunk. Urban legend says you can put a double bed inside an old olive tree trunk.

In addition to olive trees, there are also plenty of carob trees since they do not require much water and grow well in poor soil. Cyprus has about three million carob and olive trees. The carob has the shape of a bean and is black. There are many seeds within the actual plant. “In the past, four seeds of a carob was the standard measure. The carob is used in the plastic industry making cassettes, cosmetics and carob syrup, also known as black honey,” explains Eleni.

Grapes are another important natural resource. Cyprus has about 120 different varieties of grapes that are divided into two categories: table grapes and wine grapes.

Eleni launched into a story about the wine grapes, which she categorized as Very Good. According to her story, “when Richard the Lionhearted came to Cyprus, the inhabitants wanted to welcome him so they offered him a new variety of grapes. They were very delicious. When he tasted them, he announced ‘very good’. But the inhabitants could not speak his language, and they thought he said the name of the variety. Since then, this variety of grape has been known as ‘Very Good’.”

Table grapes grow in the lower elevations with limestone, while the wine grapes grow up in the mountains where there is high rainfall. Because wine grapes ripen longer and become sweeter, workers are paid according to the sweetness of the grapes when they take them to the winery, Eleni stated.

Pine, eucalyptus, mimosa and cypress trees are popular and also plentiful across the island. The British imported Eucalyptus trees to Cyprus from Australia. There are 27 kinds of Eucalyptus documented on the island. This type of tree has the ability to absorb the water from the ground, another reason why they are so popular.

The government has begun reforesting the trees as many had been destroyed. The three reasons for destruction were:

  • Cedar trees provided hardwood for building products and home building;
  • Trees were cut down for heating homes after the copper discovery; and
  • Forests were destroyed by invasions of armies.

A Brief History Lesson
In 323 BC, Alexander the Great liberated Cyprus from the Persians. This was the start of the Hellenistic period. The capital of Cyprus was transferred from Salamis to Paphos, simply because Paphos was the nearest point to Alexandria. Paphos was the capital from the Roman period of 58 BC until the fifth century AD.

During the Byzantine period from the fifth century to 1191 AD, the Archbishop of Cyprus controlled the country. In a vision, he was told that under a carob tree in a Roman tomb in Salamis were the relics of St. Barnabas. He went there, found them, and took them to the archbishop.

During 1191, Richard the Lionhearted was on his way to the Holy Land. One of his boats (carrying his sister and fiancé) mistakenly landed in Cyprus and the occupants, including the two women, were captured. Therefore, Richard the Lionhearted subsequently invaded the island, taking control of it, and released his sister and fiancé.

“But because he really didn’t want to keep Cyprus,” explains Eleni, “he sold the island to the rulers of Jerusalem. Because of the revolutions, they could not keep the island either, and eventually gave it back to Richard.”

In 1489, the last queen of Cyprus – who had a Venetian bloodline – passed the island to the Venetians who ruled from 1499 until 1571. They placed heavy taxes on people and built many fortifications. None of the walls were finished, however, when the Ottomans invaded. The Ottoman Turks then ruled Cyprus until 1878.

From 1879 until 1960, Cyprus was a British colony. In 1960 Cyprus won its independence and has remained so. As part of the agreement, the British bases would remain. According to Eleni, there are about 99 square miles of British bases on the island.

Archbishop Makarios III was elected president in 1960 was making Cyprus the first country with a Christian leader. His vice president was Dr. Fazil Kucuk from the Turkish Muslim community. At the time of Cyprus’ independence, the population was estimated to be 650,000, of which 80 percent were Greek Cypriots, 18 percent Turkish Cypriots and two percent other minorities, such as Armenians, Latins and Maronites.

“The Greek Cypriots speak the Greek language, as do the Christian Orthodox,” explains Eleni. “The Turkish Cypriots speak the Turkish language and are Muslim, but the common language between the two communities is English.”

military-checkpointThe Cyprus Problem
Soon after the 1960 election, problems began surfacing. In 1963, the Turkish Cypriots left the Parliament. In 1974, Greece tried to assassinate the Cypriot president. “This was the chance Turkey was waiting for,” believes Eleni. “The Turks invaded Cyprus on July 20, 1974 and took control of 40 percent of Cyprus. Two hundred thousand people were forced to leave their homes and came to the central part of the island where the government built them houses. They live with the hope that one day they will go back to their land and homes where they were born. But it’s been 40 years now,” she continues, “and there has been no improvement to the Cyprus Problem. Since 1974, 1,619 people are missing and no one knows what happened to them. So with the solution of the Cyprus Problem, we also hope we will discover what happened to these people, which includes women and children, and whether they are dead or alive.

“When the Turks invaded, Greek and Turkish Cypriots were living harmoniously all across the island. The Turks landed in Kyrenia by boat and the people began fleeing in a panic to save their lives.

unfinished-high-rise-on-Famagusta-beach-1“The Turks bombed the town of Famagusta from the air. When the Turkish Cypriots who fled tried to return to Famagusta, it was impossible because the Turkish troops refused to allow them back. Turkey allowed 140,000 Turkish settlers to settle in Famagusta, giving them property and enticing them to stay on the island. The real Turkish Cypriots were living in poor conditions and many of them were forced to immigrate to other countries. When we say we don’t want the Turks in Cypriot,” emphasizes Eleni, “what we mean are the Turkish troops and the settlers, not the Turkish Cypriots. The Turkish Cypriots are Cypriots. They belong to Cyprus.”

Following the 1974 invasion, it was impossible for the Greek Cypriots to enter the Occupied Area around Famagusta. “If a Turkish Cypriot wanted to come to the west or southern side of the island, there was no problem. This is the reason why we had 8,000 Turkish Cypriots who were passing through coming to work on this side of the island,” reports Eleni. “The Turkish troops would allow them to pass through, but not to stay overnight. For the Greek Cypriots, it was impossible to go to north Cyprus; Turkish troops would not allow them into the Occupied Area.

checkpoint-at-Famagusta“Ten years ago, one day out of the blue, the Turks told the Cypriots that if they wanted to come to this side of the island, they would be allowed in if they brought a passport. You cannot imagine the result!” exclaims Eleni. “Thousands of people came to see the side of the island they had not been allowed in to in 30 years. After 1974 one third of the island population were refugees. The Turkish Cypriots still living in their houses who had not left were overjoyed to see friends and relatives. They invited them in, offering them coffee, and telling them they also wanted a solution to the Cyprus Problem. Settlers who now inhabited the houses shut the doors in the former owners’ faces and would not allow them in to see their old homes.”

Tourism
Cyprus’s economy is heavily based on tourism. About 25 percent of the island workers are in the tourism industry. According to Eleni, today if a Cypriot applied for a tourism job, starting salary would be 700 euro ($800) per month with only one day off a week. And then it is only seasonal. She said that 80 percent of hotels in non-tourist areas close, and if the hotels close, that means restaurants, shops and other stores in the area close as well. That is why Cyprus has such high unemployment from November to May. “It is impossible to find another job because everyone else is looking too. Those who have worked for two consecutive years at the same place can claim unemployment that amounts to approximately 70 percent of their salary for six months and no more,” Eleni states. “If you worked less than two years for a company/shop/restaurant/hotel that closes for the off season, you would need to leave the country and return again for the new tourist season and hope to get your job back or find a new one.”

Last year (2013) Cyprus saw just under $2.5 million from tourism.

Poised among political struggles, early religious strife, the comfort of modern civilization stemming from mythology and ancient ruins, along with the sensory splendor of nature, Cyprus and its historic island culture have something to offer everyone.

 

 

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Larnaca Fort: Cannons, Tombstones and Gallows… Once Upon a Time

After a steady diet of Greek mythology and archaeological ruins, touring the small somewhat restored Larnaca Fort in Larnaca, Cyprus was a nice diversion.

Located a few blocks from our hotel on the southern edge of the coastal corniche road, the fort is classified as a Byzantine structure, but there are two drastically different versions of when it was constructed. It is generally agreed upon, however, that the fort’s purpose was to defend the southern coasts of Cyprus, and in particular, Larnaca’s town harbor, and was later used as a prison, artillery center and an outpost.Larnaca-fort inside-Larnaca-fort

Since it is unclear as to when exactly it was built, most historians accept the late 12th century theory as the initial period given the fact that Larnaca gained great importance as a seaport during the medieval ages. Written accounts add credence to the claim that the fort was built during the reign (1382-1398) of King James 1 of Cyprus. The form of the entrance arch suggests a 14th century date.

fort-layout-diagramIts original shape was never decisively determined, but the fort appears to have taken the form of a square tower, and based on restoration of a monument, the foundations of an earlier phase were discovered indicating that the original fort was larger than the current structure. Documentation exists to support the evidence that it was rebuilt in 1625 during the Ottoman period.

Today, located in the center of the stone-walled fort is a small, nicely landscaped courtyard. Its north-facing entrance consists of a two-story building, now a museum, and is believed to have been from the Ottoman period. This is based on the Turkish inscription above the main entrance. The courtyard is currently used for cultural events, and the day we visited a stage was in place along with about 50 chairs in anticipation of a final concert of the season.

A sign on the grounds explains that the fort was ransacked, destroyed and rebuilt several times “since it was at the center of conflicting economic interests, which had to do mainly with the export of salt from the port of Larnaca.”

According to the fort brochure, famous explorer Abbot Giovanni Mariti, who lived in Larnaca during the first half of the 18th century, records that “the fort was built by the Ottoman Turks, but was already in a semi-ruinous state at the time, even though a garrison was still maintained here.” The abbot also wrote that the fort was mainly used as a firing-gun salute to passing Christian warships.4-medieval-cannons

By the late 18th century, Larnaca Fort lost its importance and the Turks abandoned it. Apparently the next written documentation comes during World War 1 when the Germans occupied the fort from 1914-1918 using it as a military outpost. At the end of the war, the British retook it and converted it into a prison where a gallows was installed to execute prisoners. The last execution was held in 1945. In 1948, the fort was converted to the current archaeological museum, but not opened to the public until 1969. The installations of the gallows were discovered during conservation and restoration works, but a date was not given as to when that discovery was made.

gallows-photoA sign above the gallows states that relatives and friends of the condemned were allowed to watch the execution from the courtyard, but far enough away, where they could not hear the sound of the trapdoor opening. Looking down the steep ladder to the deep hole of the former gallows was certainly an eerie feeling.

Highlights of the fort include a number of cannons on display in the courtyard – some dating to the medieval ages – and a room of tombstones dating from the 14th Century that are mainly from gothic churches of Nicosia, a town about 20 miles away. A second room featured various inscriptions carved into stone on the walls in various languages. Yet another room that faced the sea had a cave where numerous tombstones were originally uncovered.

As I clambered up some metal stairs to the two-room museum on the second level, a quick view of the calm blue sea beyond the old stone wall reflected the medieval character of the fort. Ducking inside the old door, I discovered displays of pottery, including crude utensils and dishware the soldiers used, along with photos from Early Christian churches (4-7th Century AD), Byzantine mosaics of the Early Christian period (same centuries as above), and Byzantine and Medieval Cyprus monuments from the 4-16th Centuries AD. A second room portrayed wall paintings of Cypriot Byzantine dating from the 11-16th Century AD.utesils-used-at-fort

No graceful architecture or any furnishings, for that matter, provided any hints of how comfortable or crude the fort must have been. Based on its size and the display of common household pottery discovered on site, this barren structure must have been sparsely furnished and somewhat lonely; probably not conducive to a “home away from home” for its occupants.

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